Child abuse down but neglect is up, report finds; parents biggest threat
Physical and sexual abuse of children has gone down over the past 20
years, but reports of neglect have gone up, a panel of experts reports
on Thursday. And the biggest threats to any child are the parents.
not clear why either trend is happening, the panel at the Institute of
Medicine says -- although it's very welcome news to see sexual and other
physical abuse on the decline.
"It may be because of increased
awareness in the population, that it's something that has a profound
impact on children and should be reported," says Dr. Angela Diaz,
professor of pediatrics at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New
York and one of the panel members.
Dr. Lolita McDavid, medical
director of child advocacy and protection at University Hospitals Case
Medical Center in Cleveland, says she believes awareness explains a lot.
"I think we are much more aware now that there is physical and sexual
abuse and I think we do a much better job of making families and
children understand that," McDavid told NBC News.
"We are empowering children."
the experts say it's vital to look into the reasons that physical abuse
may be going down, yet neglect and emotional abuse are staying at the
same levels. They call for sustained federal research into what's going
on and a new database to track child abuse statistics.
numbers are going down, overall, many children are abused and neglected
in the United States, the panel of experts reports.
more than 3 million referrals for child abuse and neglect are received
that involve around 6 million children, although most of these reports
are not substantiated," the report reads.
"In fiscal year 2011,
the latest year for which data are available, state child protective
services agencies encountered 676,569 children, or about 9.1 of every
1,000 children, who were found to be victims of child abuse and neglect,
including physical abuse, sexual abuse, psychological abuse, and
medical and other types of neglect."
More than 1,500 of the children, most under age 4, died because of the abuse or neglect.
report, which is mean to inform and advise federal policymakers and
Congress, quotes data from the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data. It
shows that about three-quarters of reported cases in 2011 were
classified as neglect, about 15 percent as physical abuse, and about 10
percent as sexual abuse.
"About 80 percent of perpetrators are
parents, 87 percent of whom are biological parents. More than half of
perpetrators are female," the Institute, an independent, non-government
organization, says in a statement.
Rates of child maltreatment
fell from 12.3 per 1,000 children in 2002 to 9.1 in 2011. But rates of
neglect stayed the same, at 7.2 per 1,000. Rates of physical abuse fell
from 2.3 per 1.000 children to 1.6, and rates of sexual abuse fell from
1.2 to 0.8.
"Sexual abuse has shown the largest decline in
reported rates," the report adds. One study shows sexual abuse down 62
percent since 1992.
"The sharpest declines occurred during the
late 1990s but the downward trajectory has continued, with a 3 percent
decline being reported between 2009 and 2010," the report reads.
the report says these numbers are likely to be underestimates. "For
example, the most recent National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and
Neglect from 2005 to 2006 estimated that the rate of child abuse and
neglect was 17.2 of every 1,000 children, totaling more than 1.25
million children, and many more were determined to be at risk," the
Police, teachers, neighbors and relatives are all
likely to be reluctant to report abuse and neglect, the panel of experts
says. And this costs both children and society.
"The thing that
surprises some people sometimes is that neglect has pernicious effects
across all domains of development, as does abuse," says Mary Dozier,
chair of child development at the University of Delaware and a panel
"We see this all the way from growth to illness to things
like diabetes and all kinds of other illnesses, the frequency with which
children miss school and so forth," Dozier said in a telephone
There are some known mechanisms -- stress can affect
the glands that secrete hormones, in turn affecting growth and the
immune system. And there's also a growing body of evidence that
childhood stress can affect the genes.
McDavid says it reaches
across generations. She sees it when she sees her patients in the
pediatrics clinic and counsels them about protecting themselves from
abuse. "I have had mothers who get tearful because they were molested as
children, and because they didn't tell, or nobody believed them when
they told," she says.
"Pediatricians are much more proactive in
helping families that may be under stress. We now talk about such
things. There was a time when we didn't talk about it."